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Thursday, April 27, 2023
12:30 PM - 1:30 PM
T-DO Conference Room (TA-03, Bldg 0123, Rm 121 )

Quantum Lunch

Learning Quantum Processes and Hamiltonians via the Pauli Transfer Matrix

Matthias C. Caro
California Institute of Technology

Learning about physical systems from quantum-enhanced experiments, relying on a quantum memory and quantum processing, can outperform learning from experiments in which only classical memory and processing are available. Whereas quantum advantages have been established for a variety of state learning tasks, quantum process learning allows for comparable advantages only with a careful problem formulation and is less understood. We establish an exponential quantum advantage for (a) learning the Pauli transfer matrix of an arbitrary unknown n-qubit quantum channel, (b) predicting expectation values of bounded Pauli-sparse observables measured on the output of an arbitrary channel upon input of a Pauli-sparse state, and (c) predicting expectation values of arbitrary bounded observables measured on the output of an unknown channel with sparse Pauli transfer matrix upon input of an arbitrary state. With quantum memory, these tasks can be solved using linearly-in-n many copies of the Choi state of the channel, and even time-efficiently in the case of (b). In contrast, any learner without quantum memory requires exponentially-in-n many queries, even when querying the channel on subsystems of adaptively chosen states and performing adaptively chosen measurements. In proving this separation, we extend existing shadow tomography upper and lower bounds from states to channels via the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism. Moreover, we combine Pauli transfer matrix learning with polynomial interpolation techniques to develop a procedure for learning arbitrary Hamiltonians, which may have non-local all-to-all interactions, from short-time dynamics. Our results highlight the power of quantum-enhanced experiments for learning highly complex quantum dynamics.

Host: Frederic Sauvage (T-4)